Jews gathered for deportation to the Treblinka death camp, Siedlce, Poland, August 1942. (YIVO)

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To treat the history and experience of East European Jews during the Holocaust, this entry includes five articles. The first is an overview that provides context and defines the subject. It is followed by three articles that treat the creative work of Jews under Nazi occupation and in the camps: Holocaust Diaries, which examines personal written accounts; Art and the Holocaust, which surveys works in the visual arts; and Music and the Holocaust, which takes note of musical activity in the ghettos, partisans’ songs, and composers’ activity. The last article, Restitution, Reparation, and Indemnification, discusses the postwar efforts to seek return of Jewish property and reparations payments from European governments.For further discussion, see Armed Resistance; Ghettos; Judenräte and Other Representative Bodies; Killing Centers; and Labor Camps.