Dzhum, dzhum. Label of an early twentieth-century recording performed by G. Lebedev for Siren Grand Record, Russia. (YIVO)

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Concert Music 

To survey the traditional music of East European Jews along with the participation of Jews in majority musical culture, this entry includes six articles. The overview defines genres and provides historical context. Music for Sacred Texts describes liturgical music and recitation styles. Traditional and Instrumental Music focuses on what has become commonly known as klezmer music. Concert Music provides a historical analysis of Jewish participation in Western classical music, attending conservatories, becoming professional orchestra and solo performers or composers, and developing a genre of concert music using traditional Jewish themes. Communal Organizations and Social Movements treats the multiplicity of nonprofessional musical organizations that especially arose in urban settings, many of which were closely or even directly associated with political organizations. Study of Jewish Music details the collecting of folk songs and other ethnomusicological activities. For further and related discussion, see Hasidism: Music; Holocaust: Music and the Holocaust; Songs and Songwriters; and Theater.