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(1194–1270; Mosheh ben Naḥman, known as Ramban from the acronym of Rabi Mosheh ben Naḥman; also Moses Gerondi [after his birthplace Girona]; Naḥamani; Rabenu Mosheh Gerondi; and Bonastrug da Porta) A distinguished Talmudist, Naḥmanides wrote novellae on most of both Talmuds. He also composed a commentary to the Pentateuch and extensive commentaries on the works of Maimonides (Rambam). He was a noted kabbalist and liturgical poet. [See also glossary entry Maimonides.]


Appellation used for Hungarian Progressive communities in the late nineteenth century. Commonly referred to as Reform, Neologs are roughly the equivalent of followers of present-day Conservative Judaism. [See Hungary and Reform, Religious.]

numerus clausus

(Latin, “closed number”) A fixed number used to limit people from certain groups to professions, public office, and institutions of higher learning. Numerus clausus was often used to discriminate against Jews in various countries of Eastern Europe.