User Guide


As with a traditional encyclopedia, the articles in this encyclopedia are illustrated with images and maps, as well as with other types of media. In addition, this online encyclopedia includes videos, audio recordings, and other features described below that will help you get even more out of the content.

Table of contents

The Contents box on the top left of every article is an expandable and collapsible list of the sections in an article. Click on any section to jump to that section. Click the Hide button to collapse the table; click the Show button to expand it.

Links to other articles

Words in blue in the article text are links to other articles within the encyclopedia. Click on the word to go to that article. 

Glossary terms

Words in beige in the article are glossary terms. Roll over them to see a definition of the term.


See Media Related to this Article

You can also view all of the media related to an article by clicking the See Media Related to This Article button under the image in the top right of the article. In addition to the media—images, audio, and video—this viewer includes related maps and documents.

Media in an article

If you click on any of the media in an article, it will open in the viewer.

You can zoom in and out using the + and - buttons on the bottom right of the viewer. You can click on the small icons in the top of the viewer (1)  to jump to other media related to the article. If there are more images, click the arrow buttons (2). Close the viewer by clicking the x in the top right. You can read more about how to use the viewer in the Media section of this guide. 

Return to a list of all media associated with the article in gallery format by clicking by the button at the top right (3).

Related articles

Below the related media is a list of related articles in the See Also section. This list will help you find other articles that are on similar subjects or that are related in some way to the article you are reading. 

External links

You can also search for books, reference works, and digital archives that are available in YIVO’s collections and more generally at the Center for Jewish History. Clicking on the buttons Search Library & Archives Catalog or Search Digital Collections  will automatically search these collections. If there are no results that match your search, that information will also be displayed.

Suggested Reading

Most articles have a list of Suggested Reading materials. These are listed at the end of the article.

YIVO Archival Resources

Many articles have links to descriptions of related material in the YIVO Archives. These are either in the form of online records or finding aids. Click on the link to go to the described archival resource.


Clicking on the name will take you to details about this author, as well as any other articles the author has written for the encyclopedia.

At the top of every article are the buttons:


To e-mail an article, click email at the top of the page.

A form will appear. Enter the information and click Send E-Mail. (Your e-mail address and the recipient’s e-mail address are required.) You can use one form to send the article to more than one person. Just enter each e-mail address and separate them with commas (with no space after the commas). If you’d like a copy of the e-mail sent to you, check the Send me a copy box, then click Send E-Mail.


To print an article, click on the print button at the top of every article page. Your default printer window should open, and you should follow the instructions from your printer.

Cite this Article

To cite an article from the encyclopedia in your paper or research, click the cite this article button at the top of any article page. This will open a window with citation information formatted according to the styles of the MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style. Choose your citation format and copy and paste the citation into your bibliography.